Redress Map

You can explore specific historical injustices, historical eras, reparations and individual states by clicking the filter at the top right of the map. Historical Eras were loosely defined based on those used by the Library of Congress and the Jim Crow Museum, MI. Check out the Human Rights Framework we use for information on how we determined the type of reparations for each locality. You can find more personal accounts on  Stories for the voices of communities working towards justice.

Data Summary

Overall, there are 463 instances of reparations and redress efforts according to AARN’s mapping, across 8 US Census regions. These efforts are each categorized by reparation type, as defined by Resolution 60/147 and the International Commission of Jurists: restitution, compensation, rehabilitation, satisfaction, and guarantees of non-repetition.

The vast majority of reparations mapped by AARN fall into the category of satisfaction, which contains 395 entries, or roughly 85% of all redress efforts. Within this, commemoration and memorialization is the most common subcategory, at 207 entries (making up 45% of all redress efforts, and just over 50% of satisfaction oriented efforts). The second most common subcategory was also within the definition of satisfaction, being historical analysis. At 78 entries, historical analysis made up 17% of all efforts, and 20% of all satisfaction oriented efforts. 

Geographically, the majority of the redress efforts were found in the South Atlantic, which contained 155 entries, amounting to roughly 33% of all efforts mapped across the United States. Within this region, Virginia had undertaken the greatest number of reparations, reaching 46 documented efforts and accounting for approximately 30% of all South Atlantic entries.

The most common history harm that the reparation efforts were intended to address was slavery, at 192 entries, accounting for 41% of all efforts. Segregation and lynching were also well represented in terms of redress harm throughout all regions, with more recent harms such as police brutality and mass incarceration being less common. However, a majority of advocacy efforts and organizations intending to address racial discrimination, which were not included in these mapping efforts although were documented separately, named police brutality and mass incarceration explicitly in their mission and efforts.