Government Redress

Starting in the 1990’s international efforts on addressing past racial injustices began to focus explicitly on atoning for wrongdoing at the local level.  Concurrently with this global trend, U.S. activists and occasionally governments and institutions began to develop similar policies of redress. These redress efforts allowed for the exploration of universal rights at the local level and built a space for redress by pointedly addressing the needs of those wronged. 

In 2020, the tragic loss of George Floyd and numerous other incidents of police brutality alongside the disproportionate COVID-19 impact against Black people in the United States led to a heightened global response to racial injustices. These occurrences were an impetus for another transformation within the field of racial redress. In 2021, the UN created the Permanent Forum of People of African Descent and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) unanimously passed Human Rights Council resolution 43/1, Promotion and protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of Africans and of people of African descent. Nationally, municipalities began to be accountable for historical racial injustices such as the passage of housing reparations in Evanston, Illinois for historical discriminatory zoning policies between 1920-1950. 

Below we’ve complied a representation of various state and city reparation ordinances over the past several decades.

NationalLetter to Biden EO Reparations Commission2022
NationalEquity Action Plan Summary U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs2021
NationalMemorandum on Redressing Our Nation’s and the Federal Government’s History of Discriminatory Housing Practices and Policies2021
NationalNational Public Law Civil Rights History Project Act of 20092009
CaliforniaCity of Sacramento: Resolution Recognizing Historic Passage of California AB 3121 to Establish Task Force to Study and Develop Reparation Proposals for African American Descendants of U.S. Slavery2021
CaliforniaTask Force to Study and Develop Reparation Proposals for African Americans (2020)2020
DelawareResolution 10 Apology2019
DelawareSenate Bill 148: Redding Consortium2019
DelawareSenate Bill 222 Redding Consortium2019
IllinoisCity of Evanston: A Resolution Authorizing the Local Reparations Restorative Housing Program, 37-R-212021
MarylandApology for Racial Injustice2018
MarylandApology for Slavery2007
MarylandEquity Fund2018
MarylandHouse Bill 307 Lynching Truth and Reconciliation Committee2019
MarylandMontgomery County Council Remembrance and Reconciliation Commission2019
MarylandSB 751 Slavery Era Insurance Policy Reporting2009
MassachussettsAmherst: Committee Charge, African Heritage Reparation Assembly2021
MassachussettsAmherst: Resolution Affirming the Town of Amherst’s Commitment to End Structural Racism and Achieve Racial Equity for Black Residents2020
MassachussettsOrder for a Hearing Regarding a Local Truth and Reconciliation Commission2021
MassachussettsOrder for a Hearing Regarding Reparations and their Impact on the Civil Rights of Black Bostonians2021
MassachussettsScott Merzbach, Community Engagement Next for Reparations Plan in Amherst, AMHERST BULLETIN2021
MassachussettsTruth and Reconciliation Commission, House Docket 51242020
MichiganLaura Herbert, Detroit Voters Overwhelmingly Approve Proposal R, Which Would Create a Task Force on Reparations, WDET2021
MichiganResolution to Place Reparations Initiative on the November 2021 Ballot2021
MichiganResolution Supporting Community Reparations for Black Detroit 2021
New JerseyAn Act Establishing the “New Jersey Reparations Task Force”, Sen. Bill 322, 2020 Reg. Session2020
New JerseyAn Act Establishing the “New Jersey Reparations Task Force”, Assemb. Bill 711, 2020 Reg. Session2020
North CarolinaAsheville Reparations2020
North CarolinaCity of Durham Report of the Durham Racial Equity Task Force (2020) Executive Summary (1-3) and Our Recommendations (13-14)2020
North CarolinaDean-Paul Stephens, High Point Will Explore Citywide Reparations with New Committee, TIMES NEWS2021
North CarolinaRacial Justice Act2009
North CarolinaRegret for Slavery2018
North CarolinaRocky Mount City Council Minutes2020
North CarolinaWilmington Race Riot Commission1999
North CarolinaResolution to Fund Community Reparations for Black Asheville, Res. No. 21-1192021
North CarolinaResolution Supporting Community Reparations for Black Asheville, Res. No. 20-128 2020
South CarolinaJuneteenth2020
South CarolinaRemoval of SC Battle Flag of the Confederate States of America2015
VermontAn Act Relating to Establishing the Task Force to Study and Develop Reparation Proposals for the Institution of ChattelSlavery, H. 387, 20212021
VirginiaAn Act to Amend the Code of Virginia by Adding a Section Numbered 23.1-615.1, Relating to the Establishment of the Enslaved Ancestors College Access Scholarship and Memorial Program2021
VirginiaArlington change name of Jefferson Davis Highway2019
VirginiaBrown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program and Fund2005
VirginiaFairfax County School Board School Name Change2017
VirginiaJoint Apology for Lynching2019
VirginiaRegret for Servitude of Africans and Exploitation of Native Americans2007
VirginiaRepeal of Lee Jackson as a Commonwealth Holiday2018
VirginiaRichmond City School Board2018
West VirginiaJuneteenth2021